Files downloaded from the Census Bureau's FTP server contain all of the data, metadata, geographies, and codes for a specific dataset. They are intended for advanced users who plan to analyze large volumes of data using specialized software such as SAS, SPSS, etc.
You can visit the Census Bureau's FTP Site (http://www2.census.gov/) or use the following pages to download data from many censuses and surveys conducted by the Census Bureau.
American Community Survey - downloadable data via FTP server: https://census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/data/data-via-ftp.html
2010 Census Redistricting Data [P.L. 94-171] Summary Files: https://www.census.gov/rdo/data/2010_census.html
Population Estimates - downloadable datasets: https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/popest/data/data-sets.html
County Business Patterns - download .csv files: https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/cbp/data/datasets.html
Nonemployer Statistics -- download . csv files: https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/economic-census/data/tables.html
Visit the Downloading Overview page (https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/download_center.xhtml) for information on download options and formats supported by American FactFinder.
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